Kidney Infection – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

Overview: Kidney Infection

Kidneys are one of the most important organs of the human body, because they filter the blood, cleanse it of toxins then deliver it to all other tissues and organs, normalize blood pressure and control all the elements contained in the blood, maintaining homeostasis. Due to the high loads on these organs, their incretory, infiltrative and urine-forming functions can be disturbed, resulting in the development of renal diseases that require immediate treatment. It is important to know what the first signs of kidney disease are, in order to be able to identify them in time and prevent serious complications.

Causes Of Kidney Disease:

Provoke kidney disease can be both external and internal factors.

 The most common are the following causes of kidney disease:

  • Severe hypothermia and sharp temperature changes
  • Abuse of alcoholic beverages
  • Irrational diet, as a result of which calcium stones are formed in the organs
  • Taking certain medications
  • Infectious processes in the body
  • Sudden weight loss, reduces the filtration function.
  • Constant fatigue, stress, and lack of rest reduce the body’s defence functions.
  • Mechanical damage
  • Intoxicationwith drugs or chemicals
  • Stones and neoplasms that interfere with urine outflow and lead to atrophy of the parenchyma and increased intrarenal pressure.
  • GI disorders and frequent constipation.
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Bleeding, hypotension, ischemia and atherosclerosis of the kidneys, disrupt blood circulation in the organ.
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Oncologic diseases
  • Infections with excretion of purulent contents, in particular streptococcal, intestinal, measles, rubella, herpes, malaria and fungal lesions of internal tissues.

The Most Common Kidney Diseases

The following kidney diseases are the most common:

  • Diseases of infectious and inflammatory nature – pyelonephritis.
  • Abscess
  • Syphilis and tuberculosis
  • Parasitic and fungal lesions.
  • The formation of cysts – simple, atypical or parasitic.
  • Various kinds of nephropathies – diseases that develop with gout
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • vasculitis
  • Amyloidosis
  • Prolonged use of drugs, poisoning.
  • Urolithiasis– the formation of phosphate, urate, oxalate concretions, and nephrolithiasis.
  • Anomalies of size, location or structure of organs of congenital nature.
  • Trauma.
  • Benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • Nephrosclerosis – shrivelled kidney syndrome.
  • Nephroptosis – prolapse of the organ.

1. Chronic Kidney Disease:

Chronic kidney disease is diagnosed in the presence of persistent signs of dysfunction or damage to the structure of the organ, which persist for 3 months or longer.

Such diseases include pathologies of various etiologies, including:

  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Lesions caused by gout, hypertension, diabetes mellitus
  • Interstitial nephritis.

In neglected cases, in the absence of organ-preserving (nephroprotective) treatment, chronic kidney disease can cause terminal renal failure with lifelong dialysis treatment.

2. Acute Kidney Disease:

Acute kidney disease is manifested by a sudden decrease in the organ’s functionality over several days, causing nitrogenous compounds to accumulate in the blood and decreasing diuresis.

Inflammatory kidney disease in the absence of proper treatment can flow into chronic kidney disease with a protracted course, so requires immediate medical attention.

Symptoms Of Kidney Disease:

Symptoms of kidney disease at the initial stage may manifest themselves as an ordinary malaise with weakness and slight chills. As the disease develops, there are characteristic manifestations, in particular, violations of the secretion and formation of urine, changes in its colour, swelling, and pain syndrome.

Renal pain can have a different character and intensity depending on the disease:

  • For glomerulonephritis is characterized by aching sensations on both sides of the lumbar region.
  • With acute pyelonephritis, the pain is intense and localized on the side of the affected kidney.
  • Inflammation can cause sharp pain in the lumbar region, recoiling in the urethra and genitals, and renal colic.

Pathological processes in most cases are accompanied by violations of the formation and excretion of urine, including:

  • Polyuria – an increase in daily excretion with an unchanged amount of liquid drunk.
  • Oliguria – a decrease in the amount of excreted urine.
  • Anuria – complete absence or minimal excretion.
  • Polacisuria – frequent urges to urinate with small amounts of urine.
  • Nicturia – urges to the toilet at night.
  • Dysuria – painful urination with characteristic lashes.

The colour of urine in kidney disease becomes cloudy, may change the smell of secretions, and appear cloudy sediment and blood impurities. The presence of blood in the urine may indicate the formation and movement of stones and the presence of neoplasms in the organ.

Additional symptoms of diseases of the excretory system are:

  • Arterial hypertension
  • A constant feeling of dryness in the oral cavity
  • Fever, chills
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Nausea, stool disorders, vomiting
  • Persistent itching and flaking of the skin
  • Seizures
  • Rashes on mucous membranes and skin
  • Feel swelling on face and legs

Diagnosis of Kidney Disease:

Determine the presence, form and degree of pathology of the kidneys urologists and nephrologists help modern methods of laboratory and instrumental studies, in particular:

  • General urine analysis and various tests (tricupacanal, Reberg, Haynes, with nitric and sulfosalicylic acids)
  • Prednisolone tests
  • Cleaning techniques
  • Bacteriologic and microscopic studies of urine
  • General blood tests.
  • Ultrasonic diagnostics.
  • Radiography
  • Renal angio- and arteriography
  • MRI and CT scans
  • Dopplerometry with in-depth examination of renal vessels;
  • Retrograde pyeloureterography
  • Scintigraphy and radioisotope X-rays – allow for assessing the functional state of organs.

Blood Biochemistry In Renal Diseases:

With the use of instrumental examination techniques, a precise diagnosis can be made, the current state of the organs’ mobility, form, and condition can be evaluated, and even minute alterations in the way the organs function can be detected in order to identify the disease in its early stages.

Treatment For Kidney Disease:

Therapy for kidney disease should be comprehensive and aimed at both eliminating the causes of the disease and alleviating symptoms. Any drugs and herbal decoctions should be prescribed by a doctor after diagnostic measures and with constant monitoring of the patient’s condition.

The treatment can be used:

  • Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral drugs.
  • Immunomodulators
  • Analgesics, antispasmodics, painkillers.
  • Special preparations that dissolve sand and stones.
  • Phytopreparations – special herbal collections for cleaning the urinary tract.
  • Therapeutic diet.

If conservative methods of treatment are ineffective, the patient is shown emergency hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, and in the presence of neoplasms in the organs – surgical treatment, including stenting, laparoscopic kidney resection, nephrostomy (surgical restoration of urine outflow).

Prevention Of Kidney Disease:

Prevention of kidney disease involves compliance with the rules of a healthy lifestyle. Prevent the development of dangerous pathologies, especially in the presence of predisposing factors to them, and keep healthy will help the following recommendations:

  • Maintain normal physical activity
  • Observe the drinking regime and consume at least 1.5 litres of water per day.
  • Include in the diet dairy products, fish and seafood, fresh berries, vegetables and fruits.
  • Refuse bad habits and alcohol consumption.
  • Avoid hypothermia and sudden temperature changes.
  • Refuse strong coffee and tea or minimize their use
  • Carefully monitor intimate hygiene
  • Treat any infections immediately
  • Undergo regular tests and medical examinations.
  • Exclude fatty and fried food, heavy broths, hot sauces and spices, and pickles from the diet.
  • Eat frequently and in small portions.

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